Delaware Division of Fish & Wildlife

 

RARE VASCULAR PLANTS OF DELAWARE

February 2001

Delaware Natural Heritage Program

Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control

Division of Fish and Wildlife

4876 Hay Point Landing Road, Smyrna, Delaware 19977

(302) 653-2880

List compiled and edited by William A. McAvoy

Delaware Natural Heritage Program

 

In assessing the status of Delaware's native flora, many individuals have contributed their knowledge and expertise in helping to develop this list of rare plant species. I wish to thank the following: Karen Bennett, Peter Bowman, Lynn Broaddus, Keith Clancy, Janet Ebert, Frank Hirst, Jack Holt, Ernie Schuyler, Ron Wilson and Eric Zuelke.

INTRODUCTION

The Delaware Natural Heritage Program (DNHP) is part of the Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and was established in the state in 1987. The mission of the DNHP is to locate and identify rare and uncommon species of plants and animals, as well as pristine and unique natural community types.

The DNHP strives to provide the most reliable and up-to-date biological and ecological information possible. Through systematic methods of state-wide field surveys and identification, the DNHP has compiled a database containing thousands of records on hundreds of conservation elements (i.e. plants, animals and unique natural communities) of special state concern. Records maintained in computer data base files are used to develop rare species lists, which primarily serve as guides to assist in conservation and land protection efforts by government agencies and private organizations. Rare species lists also assist land managers and stewards in management activities, provide information for use in the environmental review process, and provide information to researchers and educators.

This list contains 789 species and varieties of vascular plants considered to be rare and uncommon in the state of Delaware. Six hundred and eighteen (618) species are extremely rare to very rare and are of conservatin concern, and 171 species are rare to uncommon (S3). As a measure of rarity within the state, numerical and alphabetical ranks (S1, S2, S3, SH, SX) are assigned to each species listed. Ranks are also applied to indicate global rarity (G1, G2, G3, GH, GX). The ranking system, explained in Appendix I, is based on criteria developed by The Nature Conservancy, a private international conservation organization. Assignment of ranks prioritizes species for protection in order of importance: S1, extremely rare; S2, very rare; S3, rare to uncommon; SH, historical, not reported for 15 or more years; SX, extirpated, no longer exists in the state. Species ranked as S1 and S2 are given primary consideration for conservation. Species ranked as S3 are not of conservation concern in the state at this time, but are still deserving of inventory or monitoring. If plants ranked as historical or extirpated are rediscovered, they are then included in the primary conservation category and ranked as S1 or S2. A list of Delaware plant species that are Federally listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (endangered, threatened and candidate species) is found in Appendix II.

Considering the overall native flora of Delaware (1,565 species): 39% of the native flora (618 species) is of conservation concern, 11% (171 species) is rare to uncommon, 11% (171 taxa) is thought to be historical, and 3% (57 species) is thought to be extirpated. In addition, 5% (76 species) of the states native flora is known from only a single occurrence or population. Species are rare, or become rare, due to a variety of reasons, but rarity is primarily a result of the loss of habitat, such as the draining and filling of wetlands and the destruction and development of upland forests. The DNHP hopes that this list will be used to facilitate efforts towards the conservation and protection of Delaware's rare native plants.

Taxa listed are arranged alphabetically by scientific name. Nomenclature for scientific and common names follows: W. McAvoy and K. Bennett, The Flora of Delaware, an Annotated Checklist, published by the Delaware Natural Heritage Program (2001). For clarification, synonyms are given where appropriate and are listed in parentheses below the currently accepted name.

Delaware's list of Rare Native Plants is dynamic, and is updated every other year as new data are collected through field surveys and research. Listed species may be determined to be more frequent than previously documented, or conversely, species thought to be common become rare, species ranked as historical are often rediscovered, and new additions to the state flora are occasionally found.

The DNHP is recognized as the lead state agency for the identification and ranking of Delaware's native flora. Information on the biology/ecology and status of plants in the state are obtained from a variety of sources, such as: herbaria and private collections, published and unpublished scientific literature and reports, knowledgeable professional and amateur botanists, and from field work conducted by the staff of the Delaware Natural Heritage Program. Users of this list are encouraged to report new discoveries of any species found on this list, and to comment or make recommendations regarding ranks, additions or deletions. A rare species reporting form is found on the last page of this document. You can actively participate in protecting Delaware's rare native plants by contacting the Delaware Natural Heritage Program with rare species information at (302) 653-2880.

RARE VASCULAR PLANTS OF DELAWARE

Scientific Name

Common Name

State Rank

Global Rank

Acer saccharum

sugar maple

S3

G5

Acorus americanus

American sweetflag

SH

G5

Actaea pachypoda

white baneberry

S1

G5

Adiantum pedatum

northern maidenhair-fern

S3

G5

Adlumia fungosa

climbing fumitory

SX

G4

Aeschynomene virginica

sensitive joint-vetch

SX

G2

Agalinis fasciculata

fascicled false-foxglove

SH

G5

(Agalinis virgata)

Agalinis linifolia

flaxleaf false-foxglove

S1.1

G4?

Agalinis maritima

saltmarsh false-foxglove

S3

G5

Agalinis obtusifolia

ten-lobe false-foxglove

SH

G4G5Q

Agalinis setacea

thread-leaved gerardia

S1

G5?

Agalinis tenuifolia

slender false-foxglove

S1

G5

Agastache nepetoides

yellow giant hyssop

S2

G5

Agastache scrophulariifolia

purple giant hyssop

SH

G4

Ageratina aromatica

lesser snakeroot

SH

G4G5T?

(Eupatorium aromaticum)

Agrimonia gryposepala

tall hairy groovebur

S1

G5

Agrimonia pubescens

soft groovebur

S3

G5

Agrimonia rostellata

woodland agrimony

S2

G5

Agrimonia striata

roadside agrimony

S1

G5

Aletris farinosa

white-tubed colicroot

S3

G5

Allium tricoccum

small white leek

S3

G5

Alnus maritima

seaside alder

S3

G3

Amaranthus pumilus

seabeach amaranth

S1.1

G2

Amelanchier obovalis

obovate coastal juneberry

SH

G4G5

Amianthium muscitoxicum

fly-poison

S2

G4G5

Ammannia coccinea

toothcup ammannia

SH

G5

(Ammannia teres)

Amphicarpum purshii

blue maiden-cane

S2

G4

Anagallis minima

chaffweed

SH

G5

Anaphalis margaritacea

pearly everlasting

SH

G5

Andropogon gerardii

big bluestem

S3

G5

Anemone virginiana

Virginia anemone

S3

G5

Angelica atropurpurea

great Angelica

S1.1

G5

Angelica venenosa

hairy Angelica

S2

G5

Antennaria howellii ssp. neodioica

pussytoes

S1

G4G5T?

(Antennaria neodioica)

Aplectrum hyemale

puttyroot

S2

G5

Apocynum androsaemifolium

spreading dogbane

S1

G5

Apocynum sibiricum

clasping-leaved dogbane

SH

G5?

Aquilegia canadensis

wild columbine

S2

G5

Arabis canadensis

sicklepod

S2

G5

Arabis drummondii

Drummond's rockcress

SH

G5

Arabis glabra

tower-mustard

SH

G5

Arabis laevigata

smooth rock-cress

S1

G5T5

Arabis lyrata

lyre-leaf rockcress

S1

G5

Aralia racemosa

American spikenard

S3

G5

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

bearberry

S1.1

G5

Arethusa bulbosa

dragon's mouth orchid

SH

G4

Arisaema dracontium

green dragon

S2

G5

Aristida lanosa

woolly three-awn

SH

G5

Aristida virgata

wand-like three-awn grass

S1

G5T4T5

Aristolochia serpentaria

Virginia snakeroot

S3

G5

Arnica acaulis

leopard's-bane

SH

G5

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium

pale Indian-plantain

S1

G4G5

(Cacalia atriplicifolia)

Aronia melanocarpa

black chokeberry

SH

G5

Aronia prunifolia

purple chokeberry

S1

G4G5Q

(Aronia x prunifolia)

Asclepias exaltata

poke milkweed

S2

G5

Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata

marsh milkweed

SH

G5T5

Asclepias lanceolata

smooth orange milkweed

S1

G5

Asclepias longifolia

long-leaf milkweed

SX

G4G5

Asclepias purpurascens

purple milkweed

S2

G4G5

Asclepias quadrifolia

four-leaved milkweed

SH

G5

Asclepias rubra

red milkweed

S1

G4G5

Asclepias variegata

white milkweed

S1

G5

Asclepias verticillata

whorled milkweed

SH

G5

Asplenium rhizophyllum

walking-fern spleenwort

SX

G5

Asplenium trichomanes

maidenhair spleenwort

S1.1

G5T5

Aster concolor

eastern silvery aster

SH

G4?

Aster dumosus

bushy aster

S1

G5

Aster ericoides

white heath aster

SH

G5

Aster fragilis

small white aster

S3

G4G5

(Aster vimineus)

Aster gracilis

slender aster

S3

G4

Aster laevis

smooth blue aster

S1.1

G5

Aster nemoralis

bog aster

SX

G5

Aster prenanthoides

crooked-stem aster

S1

G4G5

Aster radula

rough-leaf aster

SH

G5

Aster schreberi

Schreber's aster

S2

G4

Aster spectabilis

showy aster

S1

G5

Aster umbellatus

flat-top white aster

S1

G5

Atriplex arenaria

seabeach orach

S3

G5

Aureolaria flava

yellow false-foxglove

S1

G5T?

Aureolaria pedicularia

fernleaf yellow false-foxglove

S1

G5T4

Bartonia paniculata

twining bartonia

S2

G5T5

Betula populifolia

gray birch

S3

G5

Bidens bidentoides

Maryland bur-marigold

S1

G3

Bidens connata

purple-stem swamp beggar-ticks

S3

G5

Bidens coronata

tickseed sunflower

S3

G5

Bidens mitis

small-fruit beggar-ticks

S2

G4?

Bidens vulgata

tall bur-marigold

S1.1

G5

Blephilia ciliata

downy woodmint

SH

G5

Blephilia hirsuta

hairy woodmint

SH

G5?

Boltonia asteroides

aster-like boltonia

S2

G5

Botrychium matricariifolium

chamomile grape-fern

S1

G5

Botrychium oneidense

blunt-lobe grape-fern

S1.1

G4Q

Brachyelytrum erectum

bearded short-husk

S3

G5

Brasenia schreberi

watershield

S3

G5

Bromus latiglumis

riverbank brome

S1.1

G5

(Bromus altissimus)

Bromus pubescens

hairy wood brome grass

S2

G5Q

Buchnera americana

bluehearts

SH

G5?

Calamagrostis canadensis

blue-joint reedgrass

S1

G5

Callitriche palustris

vernal water-starwort

S3

G5

Callitriche terrestris

terrestrial water-starwort

S3

G5

Calopogon tuberosus

tuberous grass-pink

S1

G5

Caltha palustris

marsh marigold

S2

G5

Calystegia spithamaea

low bindweed

S1

G4G5T?

Campanula aparinoides

marsh bellflower

S2

G5

Cardamine angustata

slender toothwort

S2

G5

(Dentaria heterophylla)

Cardamine longii

Long's bitter-cress

S1

G3Q

Cardamine parviflora var. arenicola

small-flower bitter-cress

S3

G5T?

Cardamine rotundifolia

roundleaf water cress

S1.1

G4

Carex aggregata

glomerate sedge

S3

G5

(Carex sparganioides var. aggregata)

Carex argyrantha

hay sedge

SH

G5

Carex barrattii

Barratt's sedge

S3

G3G4

Carex bicknellii

Bicknel's sedge

SX

G5

Carex brevior

fescue sedge

SX

G5?

Carex bromoides

brome-like sedge

S1

G5

Carex bullata

button sedge

S3

G5

Carex bushii

Bush's sedge

S2

G4

Carex buxbaumii

Buxbaum's sedge

S1.1

G5

Carex collinsii

Collins' sedge

S3

G4

Carex communis

fibrous-root sedge

S3

G5

Carex conoidea

field sedge

SH

G4

Carex cristatella

crested sedge

SH

G5

Carex davisii

Davis' sedge

S1

G4

Carex decomposita

cypress-knee sedge

S1

G3

Carex emoryi

Emory's sedge

S1.1

G5

Carex exilis

coast sedge

S1

G5

Carex gigantea

giant sedge

S3

G4

Carex gracilescens

slender sedge

S2

G5?

Carex gracillima

graceful sedge

S3

G5

Carex granularis

meadow sedge

S2

G5

Carex grisea

a sedge

S1

G5T?

Carex gynandra

sedge

S2

G5

Carex hirtifolia

pubescent sedge

S3

G5

Carex joorii

cypress-swamp sedge

S2

G4G5

Carex lacustris

lake-bank sedge

S1

G5

Carex leptalea ssp. harperi

Coastal Plain bristly-stalk sedge

S3

G5T?

Carex leptalea ssp. leptalea

Piedmont bristly-stalk sedge

S1

G5T?

Carex limosa

mud sedge

SX

G5

Carex lupuliformis

false hop sedge

S1

G3G4

Carex meadii

Mead's sedge

SH

G4G5

Carex mitchelliana

Mitchell's sedge

S2

G3G4

Carex molesta

troublesome sedge

SH

G4

Carex oligocarpa

eastern few-fruit sedge

SH

G4

Carex pedunculata

longstalk sedge

SH

G5

Carex pellita

woolly sedge

S2

G5

Carex planispicata

sedge

S1.1

G4Q

Carex polymorpha

variable sedge

SX

G3

Carex retroflexa

reflexed sedge

S1

G5

Carex scabrata

rough sedge

S1

G5

Carex silicea

seabeach sedge

S3

G5

Carex sparganioides

bur-reed sedge

S2

G5

Carex sprengelii

longbeak sedge

SH

G5?

Carex squarrosa

squarrose sedge

S2

G4G5

Carex straminea

straw sedge

S1

G5

Carex striatula

lined sedge

S1

G4G5

Carex torta

twisted sedge

S2

G5

Carex trichocarpa

hairy-fruit sedge

S2

G4

Carex trisperma

three-seed sedge

SH

G5

Carex typhina

cat-tail sedge

S3

G5

Carex utriculata

sedge

SH

G5

Carex venusta var. minor

dark green sedge

S2

G4T4

Carex vesicaria

inflated sedge

S1.1

G5T?

Carex vestita

velvety sedge

S1

G5

Carex willdenowii

Willdenow's sedge

S1.1

G5

Castanea dentata

American chestnut

S3

G4

Castanea pumila

Allegheny chinquapin

S3

G5T5?

Castilleja coccinea

scarlet Indian-paintbrush

SX

G5

Caulophyllum thalictroides

blue cohosh

S3

G5

Ceanothus americanus

New Jersey tea

S2

G5

Celastrus scandens

climbing bittersweet

S1

G5

Centella erecta

erect coinleaf

S3

G5

Centrosema virginianum

coastal butterfly-pea

SH

G5

Cerastium arvense var. villosum

mouse-ear chickweed

S1

G5T4?

Cerastium nutans

nodding chickweed

S1

G5

Ceratophyllum echinatum

prickly hornwort

S3

G4?

Cercis canadensis

eastern redbud

SH

G5T?

Chaerophyllum procumbens

spreading chervil

S2

G5T?

Chamaedaphne calyculata var. angustifolia

leatherleaf

SH

G5T?

Chamaelirium luteum

devil's-bit

S1

G5

Chasmanthium latifolium

Indian sea-oats

SH

G5

Cheilanthes lanosa

hairy lipfern

SX

G5

Chimaphila umbellata ssp. cisatlantica

common wintergreen

S2

G5T5

Cicuta bulbifera

bulb-bearing water-hemlock

S1

G5

Cirsium altissimum

tall thistle

SH

G5

Cirsium muticum

swamp thistle

SH

G5

Cirsium virginianum

Virginia thistle

SX

G3

Cleistes divaricata

spreading pogonia

SX

G4

Clematis occidentalis

purple clematis

SX

G5T5

Clematis viorna

vase-vine leatherflower

SX

G5

Clitoria mariana

Maryland butterfly-pea

S2

G5

Coelorachis rugosa

wrinkled jointgrass

S1

G5

(Manisuris rugosa)

Commelina erecta

slender dayflower

S1

G5T5

(Includes variety angustifolia)

Commelina virginica

Virginia day-flower

S1

G5

Comptonia peregrina

sweet fern

S1

G5

Conoclinium coelestinum

mist-flower

S3

G5

(Eupatorium coelestinum)

Conopholis americana

squaw-root

S2

G5

Corallorhiza maculata

spotted coralroot

SH

G5

Corallorhiza odontorhiza

autumn coral-root

S1

G5

Corallorhiza wisteriana

spring coralroot

SH

G5

Coreopsis rosea

rose coreopsis

S1

G3

Cornus alternifolia

alternate-leaf dogwood

S3

G5

Cornus foemina

marsh dogwood

S2

G5

(Cornus stricta)

Cornus racemosa

stiff dogwood

SH

G5?

(Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa)

Cornus sericea

red-osier dogwood

SH

G5

Corydalis flavula

yellow corydalis

S1.1

G5

Corylus cornuta

beaked hazelnut

S1.1

G5T5

Crataegus punctata

dotted hawthorn

SH

G5

Crataegus viridis

green hawthorn

SH

G5

Cunila origanoides

common dittany

S2

G5

Cuphea viscosissima

blue waxweed

S2

G5?

Cuscuta polygonorum

smartweed dodder

S1.1

G5

Cynoglossum virginianum

wild comfrey

S3

G5T5

Cyperus compressus

poorland flatsedge

SH

G5

Cyperus dentatus

toothed sedge

SH

G4

Cyperus diandrus

umbrella flatsedge

S1

G5

Cyperus engelmannii

Engelmann's umbrella-sedge

S2

G4Q

Cyperus hystricinus

flatsedge

SH

G4

Cyperus lancastriensis

Lancaster's flatsedge

SH

G5

Cyperus plukenetii

Plukenet's cyperus

SH

G5

Cyperus refractus

abruptly bent backed flatsedge

S2

G5

Cyperus retrofractus

rough flatsedge

SH

G5

Cyperus squarrosus

umbrella-sedge

S1.1

G5

(Cyperus aristatus)

Cypripedium pubescens

large yellow lady's-slipper

S1

G5

Cystopteris protrusa

lowland brittle fern

S2

G5

(Cystopteris fragilis var. protrusa)

Cystopteris tennesseensis

Tennessee bladderfern

S1.1

G5

Cystopteris tenuis

bladderfern

S2

G4G5

(Cystopteris fragilis var. mackayi)

Danthonia compressa

flattened oatgrass

S1

G5

Danthonia sericea

silky oat-grass

S3

G5?

Decumaria barbara

climbing hydrangea

S1.1

G5

Desmodium canadense

showy tick-trefoil

SH

G5

Desmodium canescens

hoary tick-trefoil

S1

G5

Desmodium cuspidatum

toothed tick-trefoil

SH

G5T?

Desmodium glabellum

Dillen's tick-trefoil

S1

G5

Desmodium glutinosum

large tick-trefoil

S2

G5

Desmodium humifusum

trailing tick-trefoil

SH

G1G2Q

Desmodium laevigatum

smooth tick-trefoil

S3

G5

Desmodium nuttallii

Nuttall's tick-trefoil

S3

G5

Desmodium obtusum

stiff tick-trefoil

S1

G4G5

Desmodium ochroleucum

creamflower tick-trefoil

SH

G2G3

Desmodium rotundifolium

prostrate tick-trefoil

S3

G5

Desmodium strictum

pineland tick-trefoil

S2

G4

Dichanthelium aciculare

needle-leaf witchgrass

S1

G4G5

Dichanthelium columbianum

hemlock panicgrass

S1

G5

Dichanthelium dichotomum var. 2

(= ramulosum)

panic grass

SH

G?

Dichanthelium dichotomum var. 3

(= roanokense)

panic grass

S3

G?

Dichanthelium dichotomum var. 4

(= yadkinense)

panic grass

S1

G?

Dichanthelium dichotomum var. tenue

panic grass

SH

G5T?

Dichanthelium hirstii

Hirst's panic grass

S1.1

G1

Dichanthelium linearifolium

slim-leaf witchgrass

SH

G5

Dichanthelium longiligulatum

long-ligule witchgrass

SH

G4G5Q

Dichanthelium oligosanthes

Heller's witchgrass

S1

G5T5?

(Includes variety scribnerianum)

Dichanthelium ravenelii

Ravenel's witchgrass

S2

G5

Dichanthelium scabriusculum

panic grass

S1

G4

Dichanthelium villosissimum

white-hair witchgrass

SH

G5T5

Dichanthelium wrightianum

Wright's witchgrass

S2

G4

Diervilla lonicera

northern bush-honeysuckle

S1

G5

Diphasiastrum tristachyum

deep-root clubmoss

S3

G5

(Lycopodium tristachyum)

Diplazium pycnocarpon

glade fern

S1.1

G5

Dirca palustris

eastern leatherwood

S1.1

G4

Doellingeria umbellata

cornel-leaf aster

S1

G5

(Aster infirmus)

Drosera capillaris

pink sundew

S1.1

G5

Drosera filiformis

thread-leaf sundew

SX

G5

Drosera rotundifolia

roundleaf sundew

S2

G5

Dryopteris celsa

log fern

S1

G4

Dryopteris clintoniana

Clinton's wood fern

S1.1

G5

Dryopteris goldiana

Goldie's wood fern

S1

G4

Dryopteris marginalis

marginal wood fern

S3

G5

Echinochloa muricata

rough barnyard grass

S3

G5

Echinodorus parvulus

American dwarf burhead

SX

G3

Elatine americana

American water-wort

S2

G4

Elatine minima

small water-wort

S1

G5

Eleocharis acicularis

least spike-rush

S3

G5

Eleocharis brittonii

Britton's spike-rush

S1.1

G4G5

Eleocharis equisetoides

horse-tail spike-rush

S2

G4

Eleocharis erythropoda

bald spike-rush

S1

G5

Eleocharis fallax

creeping spike-rush

S3

G4G5

Eleocharis flavescens

pale spike-rush

SH

G5T?

Eleocharis halophila

saltmarsh spike-rush

SH

G4

Eleocharis melanocarpa

black-fruited spike-rush

S2

G4

Eleocharis quadrangulata

squarestem spike-rush

S3

G4

Eleocharis robbinsii

Robbins spike-rush

S3

G4G5

Eleocharis rostellata

beaked spike-rush

S1

G5

Eleocharis tortilis

twisted spike-rush

S3

G5

Eleocharis tricostata

three-angle spike-rush

S1

G4

Elymus hystrix

bottle-brush grass

S2

G5

Elymus virginicus var. halophilus

salt loving Virginia wild-rye

SH

G5T?

Epilobium angustifolium

purple fireweed

SH

G5

Epilobium ciliatum

hairy willow-herb

S1.1

G5T?

Equisetum fluviatile

water horsetail

S1

G5

Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine

rough horsetail

S1

G5T5

Equisetum sylvaticum

woodland horsetail

S1

G5

Eragrostis hypnoides

teal love-grass

S1

G5

Eragrostis refracta

meadow love-grass

S3

G5

Eriocaulon aquaticum

seven-angled pipewort

S2

G5

(Eriocaulon septangulare)

Eriocaulon compressum

flattened pipewort

S2

G5

Eriocaulon decangulare

ten-angle pipewort

S1

G5

Eriocaulon parkeri

Parker's pipewort

S2

G3

Eriophorum gracile

slender cotton-grass

SX

G5T?

Eriophorum virginicum

tawny cotton-grass

S1

G5

Eryngium aquaticum

marsh rattlesnake master

S2

G4T4?

Euonymus atropurpurea

wahoo

S1

G5

Eupatorium album

white thoroughwort

S3

G5

Eupatorium leucolepis

white-bract thoroughwort

S3

G5

Eupatorium purpureum

sweet Joe-Pye weed

S3

G5

Eupatorium resinosum

pine barren boneset

SX

G3

Eupatorium serotinum

late-flowering thoroughwort

S3

G5

Eupatorium sessilifolium

upland boneset

S1

G5T?

Eupatorium vaseyi

Vasey's white thoroughwort

SH

G5

(Eupatorium album var. monardifolium)

Euphorbia purpurea

glade spurge

S1.1

G3

Euthamia tenuifolia var. microcephala

tiny headed goldenrod

S3

G5T?

Festuca paradoxa

paradoxial fescue

SX

G5

Fimbristylis annua

annual fimbry

SX

G5

Fimbristylis caroliniana

Carolina fimbry

S3

G4

Fimbristylis perpusilla

Harper's fimbristylis

S1

G2

Fraxinus nigra

black ash

S2

G5

Fuirena pumila

dwarf umbrella-sedge

S3

G4

Fuirena squarrosa

hairy umbrella-sedge

S3

G4G5

Galactia regularis

eastern milk-pea

S3

G5

Galactia volubilis

downy milkpea

S3

G5

Galearis spectabilis

showy orchis

S3

G5

(Orchis spectabilis)

Galium asprellum

rough bedstraw

S1

G5

Galium boreale

northern bedstraw

SH

G5

Galium hispidulum

coast bedstraw

SH

G5

Galium lanceolatum

Torrey's wild licorice

S2

G5

Gaura biennis

biennial gaura

SH

G5

Gaylussacia brachycera

box huckleberry

S1

G2G3

Gaylussacia dumosa var. bigeloviana

dwarf huckleberry

SH

G5T4T5

Gentiana andrewsii

fringe-top bottle gentian

S1

G4

Gentiana autumnalis

pine barren gentian

SX

G3

Gentiana catesbaei

Elliott's gentian

S3

G5

Gentiana saponaria

soapwort gentian

S3

G5

Gentiana villosa

striped gentian

SH

G4

Gentianopsis crinita

fringed gentian

SX

G4

Geum laciniatum

rough avens

S2

G5T?

Geum vernum

spring avens

S3

G5

Geum virginianum

pale avens

S1

G5

Glyceria acutiflora

sharp-scaled manna-grass

S2

G5

Glyceria canadensis

Canada manna-grass

S1

G5

Glyceria grandis

American mannagrass

S1.1

G5

Glyceria laxa

northern mannagrass

SH

G5

(Glyceria canadensis var. laxa)

Gratiola aurea

golden hedge-hyssop

S3

G5

Gratiola ramosa

branching hedge-hyssop

S1.1

G4G5

Gratiola viscidula

Short's hedge-hyssop

SH

G4G5

Gymnopogon ambiguus

broadleaf beardgrass

S1

G4

Gymnopogon brevifolius

broadleaf beardgrass

SH

G5

Helianthemum bicknellii

plains frostweed

SX

G5

Helianthemum propinquum

low frostweed

S3

G4

Helianthus angustifolius

swamp sunflower

S3

G5

Helianthus decapetalus

thin-leaved sunflower

S3

G5

Helianthus divaricatus

woodland sunflower

S1

G5

Helianthus giganteus

tall sunflower

S3

G5

Helianthus strumosus

pale-leaf sunflower

SH

G5

Heliopsis helianthoides

ox-eye

S1

G5

Helonias bullata

swamp-pink

S2

G3

Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa

roundlobed hepatica

S3

G5T5

(Hepatica americana)

Heracleum maximum

cow parsnip

S3

G5

(Heracleum lanatum)

Heteranthera dubia

grassleaf mud-plantain

S1

G5

Heteranthera multiflora

multiflowered mud-plantain

S1

G4

Hierochloe odorata

holy grass

S1.1

G5T?

Honckenya peploides ssp. robusta

seabeach sandwort

SH

G5T4

Hottonia inflata

featherfoil

S2

G4

Houstonia purpurea

purple bluet

S1

G5

(Hedyotis purpurea)

Hudsonia ericoides

golden-heather

S1

G4

Hybanthus concolor

green violet

S1

G5

Hydrangea arborescens

wild hydrangea

SH

G5

Hydrastis canadensis

golden-seal

S2

G4

Hypericum adpressum

creeping St. John's-wort

S2

G2G3

Hypericum boreale

northern St. John's-wort

S1

G5

Hypericum densiflorum

bushy St. John's-wort

S2

G5

Hypericum denticulatum

coppery St. John's-wort

S2

G5

Hypericum drummondii

Drummond's St. John's-wort

S1.1

G5

Hypericum ellipticum

pale St. John's-wort

SH

G5

Hypericum gymnanthum

clasping-leaved St. John's wort

S3

G5

Hypericum majus

larger Canadian St. John's wort

SX

G5

Hypericum prolificum

shrubby St. John's-wort

S1.1

G5

Hypoxis hirsuta

eastern yellow stargrass

S3

G5

Ilex laevigata

smooth winterberry holly

S3

G5

Ionactis linariifolius

flaxleaf aster

S2

G5

(Aster linariifolius)

Iris prismatica

slender blue flag

S2

G4G5

Isoetes echinospora

spiny-spored quillwort

S1.1

G5?

Isoetes engelmannii

Engelmann's quillwort

S2

G4

Isoetes riparia

riverbank quillwort

S1

G4

Isoetes valida

a quillwort

SH

G4?

Isotria medeoloides

small whorled pogonia

S1.1

G2G3

Isotria verticillata

large whorled pogonia

S2

G5

Juglans cinerea

butternut

S3

G3G4

Juncus coriaceus

leathery rush

S3

G5

Juncus elliottii

bog rush

SX

G4G5

Juncus militaris

bayonet rush

S2

G4

Juncus nodosus

knotted rush

SH

G5T?

Juncus pelocarpus

brown-fruited rush

S2

G5

Juncus secundus

secund rush

S3

G5

Juncus subcaudatus

subcaudate rush

S1

G5

Juncus torreyi

Torrey's rush

S1

G5

Kalmia angustifolia

sheep-laurel

S2

G5

Koeleria macrantha

prairie Junegrass

SH

G5

Krigia biflora

two-flowered dwarf dandelion

SH

G5

Kyllinga pumila

thinleaf flatsedge

SH

G5

(Cyperus tenuifolius)

Lachnanthes caroliana

Carolina redroot

S1

G4

Lactuca floridana

woodland lettuce

S2

G5T?

(Includes variety villosa)

Lathyrus palustris

vetchling peavine

SH

G5

Lechea mucronata

hairy pinweed

S2

G5

(Lechea villosa)

Lespedeza angustifolia

narrowleaf bushclover

S3

G5

Lespedeza hirta

hairy bush-clover

S3

G5

Lespedeza stuevei

tall bush-clover

S3

G4?

Liatris graminifolia

grassleaf gayfeather

S1

G5

Liatris scariosa

round-head gayfeather

SH

G5?T?

Liatris spicata

blazing star

S1.1

G5T?

Liatris squarrosa

northern blazing star

SH

G5

Lilium canadense

Canada lily

S2

G5T4?

Lilium philadelphicum

wood lily

SX

G5T?

Limnobium spongia

American frog's-bit

S1

G5

Limosella australis

mudwort

SX

G4G5

Lindernia dubia var. inundata

false-pimpernel

SH

G5T4Q

Linum intercursum

sandplain flax

S1.1

G4

Liparis liliifolia

large twayblade

S2

G5

Listera australis

southern twayblade

S3

G4

Lobelia boykinii

Boykin's lobelia

SX

G2G3

Lobelia canbyi

Canby's lobelia

S2

G4

Lobelia elongata

elongated lobelia

S1

G4G5

Lobelia spicata

pale-spiked lobelia

S2

G5T?

(Includes variety campanulata)

Lonicera sempervirens

trumpet honeysuckle

S3

G5

Lophiola aurea

golden crest

SX

G4

Ludwigia hirtella

hairy ludwigia

S1

G5

Ludwigia linearis

narrow-leaf seedbox

S3

G5

Lupinus perennis

purple lupine

S1

G5T4?

Luzula acuminata

hairy wood rush

S1

G5T?

Lycopodiella alopecuroides

foxtail clubmoss

S3

G5

(Lycopodium alopecuroides)

Lycopodiella appressa

creeping clubmoss

S3

G5

(Lycopodium adpressum)

Lycopodium clavatum

running pine

S3

G5

Lycopus amplectens

sessile-leaved bugleweed

S2

G5

Lygodium palmatum

climbing fern

SX

G4

Lyonia mariana

stagger-bush

S2

G5

Lysimachia hybrida

false-hybrid loosestrife

S2

G5

Malaxis unifolia

green adder's-mouth

S1

G5

Malus angustifolia

southern crabapple

S3

G5

Matelea carolinensis

Carolina anglepod

S2

G4

Mecardonia acuminata

purple mecardonia

S1

G5

Melampyrum lineare var. pectinatum

cow-wheat

S3

G5T5

Melanthium latifolium

broadleaf bunchflower

SH

G5

Melanthium virginicum

Virginia bunchflower

S2

G5

Mentha canadensis

Canadian mint

S3

G5

Menyanthes trifoliata

bog buckbean

SX

G5

Mertensia virginica

Virginia bluebells

S3

G5

Micranthemum micranthemoides

Nuttall's micranthemum

SX

GH

Minuartia caroliniana

pine barren sandwort

S1.1

G5

Minuartia michauxii

rock sandwort

SX

G5

(Arenaria stricta)

Mitella diphylla

two-leaf Bishop's-cap

S2

G5

Monarda clinopodia

basil bee-balm

S2

G5

Monarda fistulosa

wild bergamot bee-balm

S1.1

G5

Monotropa hypopithys

American pinesap

S2

G5

Monotropsis odorata

sweet pinesap

SH

G3

Muhlenbergia capillaris

long-awn hairgrass

SH

G5

Muhlenbergia mexicana

satin grass

SH

G5

Muhlenbergia sobolifera

cliff muhly

S2

G5

Muhlenbergia sylvatica

woodland muhly

SH

G5

Muhlenbergia tenuifolia

slender muhly

S2

G5

Muhlenbergia torreyana

Torrey's dropseed

SX

G3

Myosotis laxa

small forget-me-not

S3

G5

Myosotis verna

spring forget-me-not

SH

G5

Myrica cerifera var. pumila

dwarf bayberry

SH

G5T?

Myrica heterophylla

evergreen bayberry

S1

G5

Myriophyllum heterophyllum

broadleaf water-milfoil

S1

G5

Myriophyllum humile

low water-milfoil

S3

G5

Myriophyllum pinnatum

cutleaf water-milfoil

S2

G5

Myriophyllum verticillatum

whorled water-milfoil

SH

G5

Najas gracillima

thread-like naiad

S1

G5?

Najas guadalupensis

southern naiad

SH

G5T?

Narthecium americanum

bog asphodel

SX

G2

Nelumbo lutea

American lotus

S1.1

G4

Nuphar variegata

variegated pondlily

SH

G5T5

(Nuphar lutea ssp. variegata)

Nymphoides aquatica

big floating-heart

S1

G5

Nymphoides cordata

floating-heart

S1

G5

Obolaria virginica

Virginia pennywort

S3

G5

Oenothera fruticosa

sundrops

S3

G5

Oenothera humifusa

seabeach evening primrose

S3

G5

Oenothera perennis

small sundrops

S1.1

G5

Oldenlandia uniflora

clustered bluets

S3

G5

(Hedyotis uniflora)

Onosmodium virginianum

Virginia false-gromwell

SH

G4

Ophioglossum pusillum

northern adder's tongue

SH

G5

(Ophioglossum vulgatum

var. pseudopodum)

Ophioglossum vulgatum

southern adder's-tongue

S2

G5

(Ophioglossum pycnostichum)

Orobanche uniflora

one-flowered broomrape

S2

G5

Orthilia secunda

one-side wintergreen

SH

G5

(Pyrola secunda)

Oryzopsis racemosa

black-fruit mountain-ricegrass

SH

G5

Osmorhiza claytonii

anise flavored sweet-Cicely

S3

G5

Osmunda claytoniana

interrupted fern

S3

G5

Ostrya virginiana

eastern hop-hornbeam

S2

G5

Oxypolis canbyi

Canby's dropwort

SX

G2

Panax quinquefolius

American ginseng

S2

G4

Panicum hemitomon

maidencane

S2

G5?

Panicum philadelphicum

Philadelphia panic grass

S1.1

G5

Paronychia canadensis

forked nail-wort

S3

G5

Paronychia fastigiata

cluster-stemmed nail-wort

S2

G5T5

(Includes variety paleacea)

Paspalum dissectum

Walter's paspalum

S3

G4?

Passiflora lutea

yellow passion-flower

S3

G5

Pedicularis canadensis

early wood lousewort

S2

G5

Pedicularis lanceolata

swamp lousewort

SH

G5

Pellaea atropurpurea

purple-stem cliff-brake

S1

G5

Penstemon hirsutus

hairy beardtongue

SH

G4

Penstemon laevigatus

smooth beardtongue

SH

G5

Penthorum sedoides

ditch-stonecrop

S3

G5

Persea palustris

red bay

SH

G5

Phacelia dubia

small-flower scorpionweed

SH

G5

Phaseolus polystachios

wild kidney bean

SH

G4

Phlox maculata

spotted phlox

S1

G5T?

Phlox pilosa

downy phlox

SX

G5T5

Phyla lanceolata

fog-fruit

S1

G5

Physalis angulata

cutleaf ground-cherry

SH

G5

Physalis virginiana

Virginia ground-cherry

SH

G5

Physocarpus opulifolius

eastern ninebark

SH

G5T?

Pinus echinata

shortleaf pine

S3

G5

Pinus serotina

pond pine

S3

G5

Piptochaetium avenaceum

blackseed needlegrass

S3

G5

(Stipa avenacea)

Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

grassleaf golden aster

SH

G5

Platanthera blephariglottis

white-fringe orchis

S1

G4G5T3T4

Platanthera ciliaris

yellow-fringe orchid

SH

G5

Platanthera cristata

yellow-crested orchis

S3

G5

Platanthera flava var. herbiola

southern rein-orchid

S1

G4T4Q

Platanthera grandiflora

large purple-fringe orchis

SX

G5

Platanthera lacera

green-fringe orchis

S3

G5

Platanthera nivea

snowy orchis

SH

G5

Platanthera peramoena

purple fringeless orchid

S1.1

G5

Platanthera psycodes

small purple-fringe orchis

SH

G5

Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana

resurrection fern

SX

G5T5

(Polypodium polypodioides

var. michauxianum)

Pluchea camphorata

marsh fleabane

SH

G5

Poa chapmaniana

Chapman's bluegrass

SH

G5

Poa cuspidata

bluegrass

S2

G5

Poa palustris

fowl bluegrass

S1.1

G5

Podostemum ceratophyllum

threadfoot

S1.1

G5

Pogonia ophioglossoides

rose pogonia

S2

G5

Polygala ambigua

ambiguous milkwort

SH

G5T?

(Polygala verticillata var. ambigua)

Polygala cruciata var. aquilonia

crossleaf milkwort

S3

G5T4

Polygala cymosa

tall pine-barren milkwort

SX

G5

Polygala incarnata

pink milkwort

S1

G5

Polygala paucifolia

gay-wing milkwort

SX

G5

Polygala ramosa

low pinebarren milkwort

SX

G5

Polygala senega

Seneca snakeroot

SX

G4G5

Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum

giant Solomon's seal

S2

G5T4?

(Polygonatum canaliculatum)

Polygonum careyi

Carey's smartweed

SH

G4

Polygonum densiflorum

dense-flower knotweed

S3

G5

Polygonum glaucum

seabeach knotweed

S1.1

G3

Polygonum ramosissimum

bushy knotweed

S1

G5

(Includes variety prolificum)

Polygonum tenue

slender knotweed

SH

G5

Polypodium virginianum

rock polypody

S3

G5

Porteranthus trifoliatus

Bowman's-root

SH

G4G5

Potamogeton foliosus

leafy pondweed

S3

G5

Potamogeton natans

floating pondweed

SH

G5

Potamogeton perfoliatus

clasping-leaf pondweed

SH

G5

Potamogeton pusillus

slender pondweed

S1

G5

Potamogeton robbinsii

flatleaf pondweed

SX

G5

Potamogeton spirillus

spiral pondweed

SX

G5

Prenanthes alba

white rattlesnake-root

SH

G5

Prenanthes autumnalis

slender rattlesnake-root

SH

G4G5

Prenanthes serpentaria

lion's-foot

S3

G5

Prunus americana

American plum

S3

G5

Prunus maritima

beach plum

S3

G4

Prunus virginiana

choke cherry

S1.1

G5

Puccinellia fasciculata

saltmarsh goosegrass

SH

GU

Pycnanthemum clinopodioides

basil mountain-mint

SH

G2

Pycnanthemum incanum

hoary mountain-mint

S1

G5T5

Pycnanthemum muticum

blunt mountain mint

S3

G5

Pycnanthemum setosum

awned mountain-mint

S3

G3?

Pycnanthemum torrei

Torrey's mountain mint

S1

G2

Pycnanthemum verticillatum

whorled mountain-mint

S2

G5T5?

Pyrola americana

American wintergreen

S2

G5

(Pyrola rotundifolia var. americana)

Pyrola chlorantha

greenish-flowered wintergreen

SH

G5

Pyrola elliptica

shinleaf

S2

G5

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus

Carolina false-dandelion

S3

G5

Quercus bicolor

swamp white oak

S3

G5

Quercus ilicifolia

scrub oak

SH

G5

Quercus lyrata

overcup oak

S3

G5

Quercus marilandica

blackjack oak

S3

G5

Quercus prinoides

dwarf chinquapin oak

S1

G5

Ranunculus ambigens

water-plantain spearwort

S1.1

G4

Ranunculus caricetorum

hispid buttercup

S1.1

G5T5

(Ranunculus septentrionalis)

Ranunculus flabellaris

yellow water-crowfoot

S1.1

G5

Ranunculus hispidus

bristly buttercup

S1.1

G5T5

Ranunculus laxicaulis

Mississippi buttercup

S1.1

G5?

Ranunculus longirostris

eastern white water-crowfoot

SX

G5

Ranunculus pensylvanicus

bristly crowfoot

S1.1

G5

Ranunculus pusillus

Pursh's buttercup

S3

G5

Rhexia aristosa

awned meadow beauty

S1

G3

Rhododendron atlanticum

dwarf azalea

S3

G5

Rhododendron canescens

hoary azalea

SH

G5

Rhynchosia tomentosa

hairy snoutbean

S1

G5T?

Rhynchospora alba

white beakrush

S2

G5

Rhynchospora cephalantha

capitate beak-rush

S3

G5T?

(includes the variety microcephala)

Rhynchospora chalarocephala

loose-head beak-rush

S3

G5

Rhynchospora corniculata

short-bristle horn-rush

S2

G5

Rhynchospora filifolia

thread-leaved beak-rush

S1.1

G5

Rhynchospora fusca

brown beak-rush

S2

G4G5

Rhynchospora globularis

globe beak-rush

S2

G5T5?

(Includes variety recognita)

Rhynchospora glomerata

clustered beak-rush

S2

G5T?

Rhynchospora harperi

Harper's beak-rush

S1

G4?

Rhynchospora inexpansa

nodding beak-rush

S1.1

G5

Rhynchospora inundata

drowned horn-rush

S1

G4

Rhynchospora knieskernii

Knieskern's beak-rush

SX

G1

Rhynchospora macrostachya var. colpophila

tall tidal beaked-rush

S1.1

G4T3T4

Rhynchospora nitens

short-beaked bald-rush

S1

G4

(Psilocarya nitens)

Rhynchospora oligantha

few-flowered beak-rush

SH

G4

Rhynchospora pallida

pale beak-rush

SH

G3

Rhynchospora scirpoides

long-beaked bald-rush

S2

G4

(Psilocarya scirpoides)

Rhynchospora torreyana

Torrey's beak-rush

S2

G4

Ribes americanum

wild black currant

SH

G5

Rosa carolina

Carolina rose

SH

G5

Rosa virginiana

Virginia rose

SH

G5

Rotala ramosior

toothcup

S3

G5

Rubus odoratus

purple flowering raspberry

S1

G5

Rudbeckia fulgida var. fulgida

orange coneflower

S1

G5T?

Rudbeckia fulgida var. speciosa

orange coneflower

SH

G5T3T4

Ruellia caroliniensis

Carolina petunia

S1

G5

Ruellia strepens

smooth petunia

SH

G4G5

Rumex altissimus

pale dock

S1

G5

Sabatia campanulata

slender marsh pink

S1

G5

Sabatia difformis

two-formed pink

S1

G4G5

Sabatia dodecandra

large marsh pink

S1

G5?T?

Saccharum brevibarbe var. contortum

bent-awn plume grass

S3

G5

(Erianthus contortus)

Saccharum coarctatum

bunched plume grass

S3

G?

(Erianthus coarctatus; E. brevibarbis

misapplied)

Sacciolepis striata

gibbous grass

S1

G5

Sagittaria calycina

spongy arrowhead

S2

G5T4

(Lophotocarpus spongiosus)

Sagittaria engelmanniana

Engelmann's arrowhead

S2

G5?

Sagittaria graminea

grassleaf arrowhead

S2

G5T5

Sagittaria lancifolia

bull-tongue arrowhead

S1.1

G5?

(Sagittaria falcata)

Sagittaria rigida

sessile-fruited arrowhead

SH

G5

Sagittaria subulata

strap-leaf arrowhead

S3

G4

Salicornia bigelovii

dwarf glasswort

S1

G5Q

Salicornia virginica

Virginia glasswort

S1

G5

Salix caroliniana

Carolina willow

SH

G5

Salix discolor

pussy willow

SH

G5

Salix eriocephala

heart-leaved willow

SH

G5

(Salix cordata)

Salix exigua

sandbar willow

SH

G5

(Salix interior)

Salix humilis var. humilis

tall prairie willow

S3

G5

Salix humilis var. tristis

dwarf willow

SH

G5T?

(Salix tristis)

Salix lucida

shining willow

SH

G5T?

Salix sericea

silky willow

S1

G5

Sanguisorba canadensis

Canada burnet

SH

G5

Sanicula marilandica

black snake-root

S1.1

G5

Sanicula trifoliata

large-fruited sanicle

S1.1

G4

Sarracenia purpurea

purple pitcher-plant

S3

G5T5

Saxifraga pensylvanica

swamp saxifrage

S1.1

G5

Schizachyrium littorale

keeled little bluestem

SH

G5T?

(Andropogon littoralis)

Schizaea pusilla

curly-grass fern

S1.1

G3

Schoenoplectus etuberculatus

Canby's bulrush

S1

G3G4

(Scirpus etuberculatus)

Schoenoplectus novae-angliae

brackish bulrush

S1

G5

(Scirpus cylindricus)

Schoenoplectus purshianus

weakstalk bulrush

S3

G4G5

(Scirpus purshianus)

Schoenoplectus smithii

Smith's bulrush

S1.1

G5?

(Scirpus smithii)

Schoenoplectus subterminalis

water bulrush

S2

G4G5

(Scirpus subterminalis)

Schwalbea americana

American chaffseed

SX

G2

Scirpus atrovirens

woolgrass bulrush

S1

G5?

Scirpus expansus

red-stem bulrush

S2

G4

Scirpus hattorianus

bulrush

S3

G5

Scirpus pendulus

pendulous bulrush

S1

G5

Scirpus polyphyllus

leafy bulrush

S3

G5

Scleria muehlenbergii

Muhlenberg's nutrush

S1

G5

Scleria pauciflora

few-flowered nutrush

S1

G5

Scleria reticularis

reticulated nutrush

S2

G3G4

Scleria triglomerata

whip nutrush

S1

G5

Sclerolepis uniflora

one-flower sclerolepis

S2

G4

Scrophularia lanceolata

Hare's figwort

SH

G5

Scutellaria galericulata

hooded skullcap

S1

G5

Scutellaria nervosa

veined skullcap

SH

G5

Scutellaria parvula var. leonardii

small skullcap

SH

G4T4

Scutellaria saxatilis

rock skullcap

SH

G3G4

Sedum ternatum

wood stonecrop

S3

G5

Selaginella rupestris

ledge spike-moss

SX

G5

Senecio anonymus

Small's ragwort

S1.1

G5

Senecio pauperculus

balsam ragweed

S1

G5

Senna hebecarpa

wild senna

S3

G5

(Cassia hebecarpa)

Senna marilandica

Maryland senna

SH

G5

(Cassia marilandica)

Sesuvium maritimum

Puerto Rico sea-purslane

SH

G5

Setaria magna

giant foxtail

S3

G5

Sideroxylon lycioides

buckthorn bumelia

S1.1

G5

(Bumelia lycioides)

Silene caroliniana ssp. pensylvanica

cardina pink

S1

G5T4

Silene virginica

fire pink

S1

G5

Sisyrinchium atlanticum

eastern blue-eyed-grass

S3

G5

Sisyrinchium mucronatum

Michaux's blue-eyed-grass

S1.1

G5

Smallanthus uvedalius

yellow-flowered leafcup

S3

G4G5

(Polymnia uvedalia)

Smilax bona-nox

saw greenbrier

S1

G5

Smilax pseudochina

long-stalk greenbrier

S2

G4G5

Smilax tamnoides

halberd-leaf greenbrier

S1

G5

(Smilax hispida)

Smilax walteri

Walter's greenbrier

S3

G5

Solidago arguta

cutleaf goldenrod

S1

G5T4

Solidago latissimifolia

Elliott's goldenrod

S1

G5

(Solidago elliottii)

Solidago patula

roundleaf goldenrod

S3

G5

Solidago squarrosa

squarrose goldenrod

SX

G4?Q

Solidago stricta

wandlike goldenrod

SX

G5

Solidago tarda

late goldenrod

S1.1

G4?Q

Solidago uliginosa

bog goldenrod

S1.1

G4G5T?

Solidago ulmifolia

elm-leaf goldenrod

S1

G5T?

Spartina pectinata

fresh water cordgrass

S1.1

G5

Sphenopholis obtusata

prairie wedgegrass

SH

G5

Sphenopholis pensylvanica

swamp wedgescale

S1

G4

Spiraea alba

narrow-leaf meadow-sweet

S1

G5T5

(Includes variety latifolia)

Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis

southern slender ladies'-tresses

S3

G5

Spiranthes lucida

shining ladies'-tresses

SH

G5

Spiranthes praecox

grassleaf ladies'-tresses

SH

G5

Spiranthes tuberosa

little ladies'-tresses

SH

G5

Spiranthes vernalis

twisted ladies'-tresses

S2

G5

Spirodela punctata

dotted water-flaxseed

S3

G5

Sporobolus clandestinus

rough dropseed

S1

G5

Sporobolus compositus

longleaf dropseed

SH

G5

(Sporobolus asper)

Stachys aspera

rough hedge-nettle

SH

G5T4?

(Stachys hyssopifolia var. ambigua)

Stachys hyssopifolia

hyssop-leaf hedge-nettle

S1

G5

Stachys tenuifolia

smooth hedge-nettle

S1.1

G5

Stellaria alsine

trailing stitchwort

S2

G5

Suaeda linearis

narrow-leaf seepweed

S3

G5

Taenidia integerrima

yellow pimpernell

S1.1

G5

Talinum teretifolium

round-leaved fame-flower

SX

G4

Tephrosia spicata

spiked hoary-pea

SH

G4G5

Thalictrum dioicum

early meadow-rue

S1

G5

Thalictrum revolutum

waxleaf meadow-rue

S1

G5

Thaspium barbinode

hairy-jointed meadow-parsnip

S1

G5

Thelypteris simulata

bog fern

S1

G4G5

Tofieldia racemosa

coastal false-asphodel

SX

G5

Torreyochloa pallida

pale manna grass

S3

G5

(Glyceria pallida)

Toxicodendron pubescens

poison oak

S3

G5

Toxicodendron vernix

poison sumac

S3

G5

Trachelospermum difforme

climbing dogbane

S1.1

G4G5

Tradescantia virginiana

Virginia spiderwort

S3

G5

Triadenum fraseri

northern marsh St. John's-wort

SH

G4G5

Trichophorum planifolium

bashful bulrush

S2

G5?

(Scirpus verecundus)

Trichostema setaceum

narrow-leavf blue-curls

S1

G5

Trientalis borealis

northern starflower

S1

G5T?

Trifolium carolinianum

Carolina clover

SH

G5

Triglochin striata

three-ribbed arrowgrass

SH

G5

Trillium cernuum

nodding trillium

S2

G5

Trillium erectum

ill-scented trillium

S1.1

G5

Triosteum angustifolium

yellow-leaf tinker's-weed

S1

G5

Triosteum aurantiacum

coffee tinker's-weed

S1

G5T?

Triosteum perfoliatum

perfoliate tinker's-weed

S1.1

G5

Triphora trianthophora

nodding pogonia

S1.1

G4

Typha domingensis

southern cattail

S1.1

G4G5

Utricularia biflora

two-flower bladderwort

S2

G5

Utricularia cornuta

horned bladderwort

SH

G5

Utricularia fibrosa

fibrous bladderwort

S2

G4G5

Utricularia geminiscapa

hidden-fruited bladderwort

S3

G5

Utricularia gibba

humped bladderwort

S3

G5

Utricularia inflata

swollen bladderwort

S1

G5

Utricularia juncea

southern bladderwort

S2

G5

Utricularia minor

lesser bladderwort

SX

G5

Utricularia purpurea

purple bladderwort

S1

G5

Utricularia radiata

small swollen bladderwort

S3

G4

Utricularia resupinata

northeastern bladderwort

S1

G4

Utricularia subulata

zigzag bladderwort

S3

G5

Vaccinium angustifolium

late lowbush blueberry

SH

G5

Vaccinium fuscatum

(Vaccinium atrococcum)

black-berried highbush blueberry

S3

G5

Vaccinium macrocarpon

large cranberry

S3

G5

Veratrum viride

American false-hellebore

S3

G5

Verbena simplex

narrow-leaf vervain

SH

G5

Verbesina alternifolia

wingstem

SH

G5

Vernonia glauca

broadleaf ironweed

S1

G5

Veronica americana

American speedwell

S1

G5

Veronicastrum virginicum

Culver's-root

S1

G5

Viburnum cassinoides

withe-rod

SH

G5

Viburnum rafinesquianum

downy arrow-wood

SH

G5

Viola blanda

white violet

S3

G4G5

Viola brittoniana

coast violet

S3

G5

Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens

smooth white violet

S1

G5T5

(Viola pallens)

Viola palmata

palmate-leaved violet

S3

G5

Viola pedata

bird's-foot violet

S1

G5

Viola pubescens

downy yellow violet

S3

G5T?

Viola rotundifolia

roundleaf violet

S2

G5

Viola sagittata var. ovata

fringed violet

S1

G5T4?Q

(Viola fimbriatula)

Viola sagittata var. sagittata

arrow-leaved violet

S3

G5

Viola striata

striped violet

S3

G5

Wolffia brasiliensis

pointed watermeal

S3

G5

(Wolffia punctata)

Wolffia columbiana

Columbia watermeal

S3

G5

Wolffiella gladiata

sword bogmat

SH

G5

(Wolffiella floridana)

Woodsia obtusa

blunt-lobe woodsia

S2

G5T?

Xerophyllum asphodeloides

eastern turkeybeard

SX

G4

Xyris fimbriata

fringed yellow-eyed grass

S1

G5

Xyris smalliana

Small's yellow-eyed-grass

S2

G5

Xyris torta

twisted yellow-eyed-grass

S3

G5

Zannichellia palustris

horned pondweed

S1

G5

Zanthoxylum americanum

northern prickley ash

SH

G5

Zigadenus leimanthoides

death-camus

SH

G4Q

Zizia aptera

golden Alexander

S1

G5

Zizia aurea

common Alexander's

S2

G5

Zostera marina

eel-grass

SX

G5

 

APPENDIX I

EXPLANATION OF STATE AND GLOBAL RANKS

 

Ranks are based on a system developed by The Nature Conservancy to measure the relative rarity of a species. Each species listed is given a State and Global rank. The State rank reflects the rarity within Delaware, and the Global rank reflects the rarity of the species throughout the world. State and Global ranks are used to prioritize conservation and protection efforts so that the rarest of species receives immediate attention. The primary criteria for ranking species is the total number of documented occurrences or populations with consideration given to the total number of individuals within each population. Ranks for individual species are annually updated and are based on current knowledge.

STATE RANK

S1 Extremely rare and of conservation concern; typically 5 or fewer extant occurrences or populations in the state; or only a few remaining individuals; may be especially vulnerable to extirpation.

S1.1 To date, only a single extant occurrence or population of this species is known to exist in the state.

S2 Very rare and of conservation concern; typically between 6 and 20 known occurrences or populations; may be susceptible to becoming extirpated.

S3 Rare to uncommon not of conservation concern; typically 21 to 50 known occurrences or populations; S3 ranked species are not yet susceptible to becoming extirpated in the state but may be if additional populations are destroyed.

S4 Common; apparently secure under present conditions; typically 51 or more known occurrences or populations, but may be fewer with many large populations; usually not susceptible to immediate threats.

S5 Very common; demonstrably secure under present conditions.

SU Status uncertain; a species thought to be uncommon in the state, but there is inadequate data to determine rarity. Also includes uncommon species of uncertain nativity in the state and of questionable taxonomic standing.

SH Historically known from the state but not verified for an extended period (usually 15 years); there are expectations that the species may be rediscovered.

SX Species has been determined or presumed to be extirpated. All historical occurrences have been searched, or all known sites have been destroyed, and a thorough search of potential habitat has been completed.

GLOBAL RANK

G1 Critically imperiled globally because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences), or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extinction.

G2 Imperiled globally because of rarity (6-20 occurrences), or because of some other factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range.

G3 Either very rare and local throughout its range (21 to 100 occurrences), or found locally (even abundantly at some of its locations) in a restricted range (e.g. a physiographic region), or because of some other factor(s) making it vulnerable to extinction throughout its range.

G4 Apparently secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

G5 Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

GH Historically known, with the expectation that it may be rediscovered.

GX Species believed to be extinct throughout its range with no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.

GU Possibly in peril range-wide but status uncertain; more information is needed.

G? Species has not yet been ranked.

GNE Exotic in the United States (e.g. Japanese Honeysuckle).

Q If a taxon is treated as a full species, a qualifying "Q" is added after the global rank to denote its questionable taxonomic assignment.

T Global ranks containing a "T" qualifier denote that the infraspecific taxon is being ranked differently than the full species. For example, Polygala cruciata var. aquilonia is ranked G5T4 the full species is ranked G5 and the expression aquilonia is ranked G4.

 

APPENDIX II

 

FEDERALLY LISTED AND CANDIDATE PLANT SPECIES OCCURRING

IN THE STATE OF DELAWARE

 

SCIENTIFIC NAME

STATE RANK

GLOBAL RANK

COMMON NAME

LE (ENDANGERED)

Oxypolis canbyi

SH

G2

Canby's dropwort

Schwalbea americana

SX

G2

American chaffseed

LT (THREATENED)

Aeschynomene virginica

SX

G2

Sensitive jointvetch

Amaranthus pumilus

S1

G2

Seabeach amaranth

Helonias bullata

S2

G3

Swamp pink

Isotria medeoloides

S1

G2G3

Small whorled pogonia

Rhynchospora knieskernii

SX

G1

Knieskern's beakrush

CANDIDATE SPECIES

Narthecium americanum

SX

G2

Bog asphodel

 

LE (ENDANGERED) - In danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

LT (THREATENED) - Likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

CANDIDATE SPECIES - Taxa for which the Service has on file enough substantial information on biological vulnerability and threat(s) to support proposals to list them as endangered or threatened species.

 

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