Delaware Division of Fish & Wildlife

kestrel.jpg - 14857 Bytes The Delaware
Natural Heritage Program

Delaware's Rare Animal Species of Conservation Concern


April 1999

Delaware Natural Heritage Program
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control
Division of Fish and Wildlife
4876 Hay Point Landing Road
Smyrna, Delaware 19977
(302) 653-2880

Compiled by Christopher M. Heckscher
Zoologist
Delaware Natural Heritage Program

The Delaware Natural Heritage Program is a joint effort between The Nature Conservancy and the Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife. The inventory of Delaware's native fauna is an ongoing effort to catalog baseline information regarding the distribution and abundance of animal species occurring within the state. This data is then used to prioritize conservation efforts in order to protect and ensure the long-term survival of our rarest species, communities and biologically diverse ecosystems. Natural Heritage Programs and associated Conservation Data Centers are established in all 50 states and several Carribean and Latin American countries.

CONTENTS

(species are arranged in phylogenetic order)

Introduction
Freshwater Mussels
Crustaceans

Insects
Coleoptera
Lepidoptera
Odonata

Fish
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Mammals
Appendix I: State Heritage Ranking
Appendix II: Federally Listed Species
A note on Neotropical Migratory Birds
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Introduction

In order to preserve Delaware's natural heritage, it is essential to determine what species are in most need of protection. Natural heritage programs and associated Conservation Data Centers attempt to asses the distribution and abundance of the world's flora and fauna in order to better understand and protect the natural diversity of our planet. State heritage programs accomplish this by inventorying and protecting species on a local basis, thus ensuring their survival worldwide. State and global ranks are assigned (see Appendix I) to each species to identify their degree of rarity. These ranks are then used to prioritize conservation efforts.

Essentially, species are rare for one of three reasons. First, a species may be rare due to its geographic location; it may be rare in Delaware because the state is within the periphery of the species range. Secondly, a species may be uncommon partially due to the lack of sufficient inventory work; thus species ranks may change over a period of time due to the discovery of additional populations. Most animals likely to occur within this category are currently ranked SU (see Appendix I). Lastly, a species may be in peril due to habitat destruction which has occurred within its geographic range; many animals are unable to adapt to land-use practices which have altered their natural habitats. This, unfortunately, is the primary reason the majority of Delaware's animals occur on this list. It is hoped that land use changes over time will incorporate conservation efforts which can help to limit the rate of species extinction in Delaware.

The attempt to asses the status of Delaware's fauna is a project of astronomical proportions. Hundreds of species of invertebrates have yet to be cataloged, perhaps even discovered and described by science. The Delaware Natural Heritage Program will continue in its attempt to inventory and determine the distribution and status of Delaware's native vertebrates and invertebrates. The continued contribution and support of knowledgeable individuals is vital to safeguard the existence of the state's most precious natural resources. Special thanks to all who have contributed their knowledge and expertise to the DNHP in our quest to understand and protect Delaware's native animal species. Delaware's Nongame and Endangered Species program has contributed to the preparation of this list by supporting field inventory work and providing baseline information on rare species. Many individuals and organizations have also been instrumental in the development of this list. In particular, special thanks to Andrew Ednie, Lisa Gelvin-Innvaer, Dr. William Grogan, Gene Hess, Cathy Martin, Joseph McLaughlin, Maynard Raasch, Dr. Dale Schweitzer, Craig Shirey, Richard H. Smith, James White and Dr. Harold White.

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DELAWARE ANIMALS OF CONSERVATION CONCERN

Freshwater Mussels

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Dwarf wedgemussel Alasmidonta heterodon SH G1G2
Triangle floater Alasmidonta undulata SH G4
Brook floater Alasmidonta varicosa SH G3
Alewife floater Anodonta implicata S1 G5
Spike Elliptio dilatata SR G5
Northern lance Elliptio fisheriana S2 G3G4
Yellow lampmussel Lampsilis cariosa SH G4
Eastern lampmussel Lampsilis radiata S1 G5
Tidewater mucket Leptodea ochracea S1 G4
Eastern pondmussel Ligumia nasuta S1 G4G5
Squawfoot Strophitus undulatus S1 G5

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Crustaceans

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Devil crawfish Cambarus diogenes S3 G5
A crayfish Cambarus bartonii S? G5
Spinycheek crayfish Orconectes limosus S? G4G5
White river crawfish Procambarus acutus S? G5

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Insects - Coleoptera

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
White tiger beetle Cicindela dorsalis media SU G4T4
A tiger beetle Cicindela formosa S? G5
A tiger beetle Cicindela formosa generosa SU G5T5
Beach-dune tiger beetle Cicindela hirticollis S2 G5
A tiger beetle Cicindela tranquebarica SU G5
A tiger beetle Cicindela patruela S? G3
A tiger beetle Cicindela patruela consentanea SU G3T2
A tiger beetle Cicindela duodecimguttata SU G5
Little white tiger beetle Cicindela lepida S1 G4
A tiger beetle Cicindela rufiventris SU G5
A tiger beetle Cicindela purpurea SU G5
A tiger beetle Cicindela repanda SU G5
A tiger beetle Cicindela marginata S1 G5
Aquatic beetle Hoperius planatus S1 G?
Virginia big-headed tiger beetle Megacephala virginica SU G5
American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus SX G1
A firefly Photuris bethaniensis S1 G1?
Aquatic beetle Agabetes acuductus SU G?
A water-scavenger beetle Helocombus bifidus SU G?

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Insects - Lepidotera

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Golden-banded skipper Autochton cellus SH G4
Confused cloudy wing Thorybes confusis SH G4
Scalloped sooty wing Staphylus hayhurstii S3 G5
Zarucco dusky wing Erynnis zarucco SR G5
Wild indigo dusky wing Erynnis baptisiae SU G5
Cobweb skipper Hesperia metea SU G4G5
Indian skipper Hesperia sassacus SU G5
Broken dash wallengrenia otho SU G4
Little glasswing Pompeius verna SU G5
Delaware skipper Atrytone logan SU G5
Rare skipper Problema bulenta S1 G2G3
Mulberry wing Poanes massasoit S1 G4
Hobomok skipper Poanes hobomok SU G5
Aaron's skipper Poanes aaroni S3 G4
Aaron's skipper Poanes aaroni aaroni S3 G4T4
Dion skipper Euphyes dion S1 G4
Black dash Euphyes conspicuus SU G4
Dun skipper Euphyes ruricola S? G5
Dusted skipper Atrytonopsis hianna S1 G4G5
Pipevine swallowtail Battus philenor S2 G5
Zebra swallowtail Eurytides marcellus S3 G5
Checkered white Pontia protodice SU G4
Harvester Feniseca tarquinius SU G4
Bronze copper Lycaena hyllus S2 G5
Great purple hairstreak Atlides halesus S1 G5
King's hairstreak Satyrium kingi S1 G3G4
Striped hairstreak Satyrium liparops strigosum S1 G5T5
Olive hairstreak Mitoura grynea S2 G5
Hessel's hairstreak Mitoura hesseli S1 G3G4
Brown elfin Incisalia augustinus SU G5
Frosted elfin Incisalia irus S1 G3G4
Henry's elfin Incisalia henrici SU G5
White M hairstreak Parrhasius m-album S3 G5
Tropical snout Libytheana carinenta SH G5
Regal fritillary Speyeria idalia SX G3
Silver-bordered fritillary Boloria selene S1 G5
Myrina fritillary Boloria selene myrina S1 G5T5
Meadow fritillary Boloria bellona SU G5
Baltimore Euphydryas phaeton S1 G4
Gray comma Polygonia progne SH G5
Hackberry butterfly Asterocampa celtis SU G5
Tawny emperor Asterocampa clyton SU G5
Eyed brown Satyrodes eurydice SH G5
Angle winged emerald moth Chloropteryx tepperaria S? G4
Woodland buck moth Hemileuca maia S3 G4
A noctuid moth Hadena ectypa SU G3G4

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Insects - Odonata

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Tiger spiketail Cordulegaster erronea S2 G4
Twin-spotted spiketail Cordulegaster maculata S3 G5
Brown spiketail cordulegaster bilineata S2 G5
Black-shouldered spinyleg Dromogomphus spinosus S2 G5
Sable clubtail Gomphus rogersi S1 G4
Dragonhunter Hagenius brevistylus S3 G5
Least clubtail Stylogomphus albistylus S2 G5
Common sanddragon Progomphus obscurus S3 G5
Black-tipped darner Aeshna tuberculifera S1 G4
Shadow darner Aeshna umbrosa S3 G5
Green-striped darner Aeshna verticalis S1 G5
Comet darner Anax longipes S1 G5
Springtime darner Basiaeschna janata S3 G5
Taper-tailed darner Gomphaeschna antilope SH G4
Harelquin darner Gomphaeschna furcillata S1 G5
Cyrano darner Nasiaeschna pentacantha S3 G5
Stream cruiser Didymops transversa S3 G5
Allegheny river cruiser Macromia alleghaniensis SR G4
Swift river cruiser Macromia illinoiensis S2 G5
Royal river cruiser Macromia taeniolata S1 G5
Racket-tailed emerald Dorocordulia libera SR G5
Stripe-winged baskettail Tetragoneuria costalis S1 G4
Robust baskettail Tetragoneuria spinosa S1 G3G4
Sely's sunfly Helocordulia selysii SH G4
Treetop emerald Somatchlora provocans S1 G3G4
Four-spotted pennant Brachymesia gravida S1 G5
Calico pennant Celithemis elisa S3 G5
Black-spotted skimmer Celithemis monomelaena S2 G5Q
Faded pennant Celithemis verna SH G5
Dot-tailed whiteface Leucorrhina intacta SH G5
Golden-winged skimmer Libellula auripennis SU G5
Bar-winged skimmer Libellula axilena S1 G5
Yellow-sided skimmer Libellula falvida SH G5
Twelve-spotted skimmer Libellula pulchella S3 G5
Great blue skimmer Libellula vibrans S3 G5
Blue corporal Libellula deplanata S2 G5
Elfin skimmer Nannothemis bella S1 G4
Spot-winged glider Pantala hymenaea S3 G5
Blue-faced meadowhawk Sympetrum ambiguum S1 G5
Band-winged meadowhawk Sympetrum semicinctum S1 G5
Black-mantled glider Tramea lacerata S3 G5
Sparkling jewelwing Calopteryx dimidiata S3 G5
American rubyspot Hetaerina americana S3 G5
Sweetflag spreadwing Lestes forcipatus S3 G5
Spotted spreadwing Lestes congener S3 G5
Common spreadwing Lestes disjunctus australis S3 G5T5
Amber-winged spreadwing Lestes eurinus S2 G4
Seepage dancer Argia bipunctulata S1 G4
Powdered dancer Argia moesta SU G5
Blue-ringed dancer Argia sedula SR G5
Dusky dancer Argia translata S1 G5
Attenuated bluet Enallagma daeckii S3 G4
Bog bluet Enallagma aspersum S3 G5
Double-striped bluet Enallagma basidens S3 G5
Burgundy bluet Enallagma dubium S1 G5
Big bluet Enallagma durum S2 G5
Hagen's bluet Enallagma hageni S? G5
Pale bluet Enallagma pallidum S1 G4
Vesper bluet Enallagma vesperum S2 G5
Blackwater bluet Enallagma weewa S2 G5
Lilypad forktail Ischnura kellitcotti S? G5
Citrine forktail Anomalagrion hastatum S3 G5
Sedge sprite Nehalennia irene S1 G5
Sphagnum sprite Nehalennia gracilis S1 G5
Great spreadwing Archilestes grandis S2 G5
Aurora damsel Chromagrion conditum S3 G5
Russet-tipped clubtail Gomphus plagiatus S2 G5
Arrow clubtail Gomphus spiniceps S1 G5
Unicorn clubtail Gomphus villosipes S2 G5

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Fish

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Least Brook Lamprey Lampetra aepytera S2 G5
American brook lamprey Lampetra appendix S2 G4
Mottled sculpin Cottus bairdi S1 G5
Slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus SR G5
Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus S2 G3
Hickory shad Alosa mediocris S2 G5
River chub Nocomis micropogon SR G5
Comely shiner Notropis amoenus S2 G5
Bridle shiner Notropis bifrenatus SU G5
Ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus S2 G5
Rosyface shiner Notropis rubellus S? G5
Spotfin shiner Cyprinella spiloptera S3 G5
Shorthead redhorse Moxostoma macrolepidotum S2 G5
Margined madtom Notorus insignis S2 G5
Yellow bullhead Ictalurus natalis S3 G5
Spotfin killifish Fundulus luciae S3 G3G4
Fourspine stickleback Apeltes quadracus S2 G5
Mud sunfish Acantharchus pomotis S2 G5
Blackbanded sunfish Enneacanthus chaetodon S2 G4
Banded sunfish Enneacanthus obesus S2 G5
Shield darter Percina peltata S1 G5

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Amphibians

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum S2 G5
Marbled salamander Ambystoma opacum S3 G5
Eastern tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum S1 G5
Longtail salamander Eurycea longicauda S1 G5
Four-toed salamander Hemidactylium scutatum S1 G5
Eastern mud salamander Pseudotriton montanus S1 G5
Northern red salamander Pseudotriton ruber S3 G5
Woodhouse's toad Bufo woodhousii S? G5
Cope's gray treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis S2 G5
Green treefrog Hyla cinerea S3 G5
Barking treefrog Hyla gratiosa S1 G5
Carpenter frog Rana virgatipes S1 G5

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Reptiles

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Atlantic hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata S? G3T3
Atlantic green turtle Chelonia mydas S? G3T?Q
Spotted turtle Clemmys guttata S3 G5
Wood turtle Clemmys insculpta SR G4
Bog turtle Clemmys muhlenbergii S1 G3
Northern diamondback terrapin Malaclemys terrapin terrapin SU G4T4
Red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans S? G5T5
Broadhead skink Eumeces laticeps SH G5
Ground skink Scincella lateralis S1 G5
Northern scarlet snake Cemophora coccinea SH G5
Corn snake Elaphe guttata S1 G5
Eastern kingsnake Lampropeltis getula S2 G5
Eastern milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum S2 G5
Redbelly water snake Nerodia erythrogaster S1 G5
Rough green snake Opheodrys aestivus S2 G5
Pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus SR G5
Queen snake Regina septemvittata S1 G5
Brown snake Storeria dekayi S3 G5
Redbelly snake Storeria occipitomaculata S1 G5
Eastern ribbon snake Thamnophis sauritus S2 G5
Smooth earth snake Virginia valeriae S1 G5
Copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix S1 G5

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Birds

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Arctic Loon Gavia arctica SR G5
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps S1B, S3N G5
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis S1N G4
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carb S2N G5
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus S1B, SZN G5
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus S1B, SZN G4
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis S1B G5
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias S2B G5
Great Egret Casmerodius albus S1B G5
Snowy Egret Egretta thula S1B G5
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea S1B G5
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor S1B G5
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis S1B G5
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax S1B G5
Yellow-crowned Night-heron Nyctanassa violacea S1B G5
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus S1B G5
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus S3N G5
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors S3B G5
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata SHB, S4N G5
Gadwall Anas strepera S3B, S4N G5
Canvasback Aythya valisineria S2N G5
Redhead Aythya americana S2N G5
Oldsquaw Clangula hyemalis S3N G5
Black Scoter Melanitta nigra S3N G5
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca S3N G5
Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica SRF G5
Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus S1B, S4N G5
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus S2B G5
Osprey Pandion haliaetus S3B G5
Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus S2B, S3N G4
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus S1B, S4N G5
Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii S1B, SZN G4
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus S2B, S3N G5
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus S1B G5
American Kestrel Falco sparverius S3B, S5N G5
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus S1N, SEB G4
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus SRF G5
Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellus SX G5
Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis S1B G4
King Rail Rallus elegans S2 G4G5
Sora Porzana carolina S2 G5
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus S3B G5
American Coot Fulica americana S1B, SZN G5
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus S1B G3
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus S1B G5
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus S2B G5
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia SU G5
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda SHB, SZN G5
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres S2N G5
Red Knot Calidris canutus S2N G5
Sanderling Calidris alba S2N G5
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla S3N G5
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima S1N G5
Dunlin Calidris alpina S3N G5
Herring Gull Larus argentatus S3B, S5N G5
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus S1B, S5N G5
Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica SHB, S2N G5
Common Tern Sterna hirundo S1B G5
Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri S1B, SZN G5
Least Tern Sterna antillarum S1B G4
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger S1B G5
Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius SX GX
Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus S1B G5
Common Barn Owl Tyto alba S3 G5
Barred Owl Strix varia S2 G5
Long-eared Owl Asio otus S1N G5
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus SHB,S2N G5
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor S2B G5
Chuck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis S3B G5
Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus S1 G5
Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus S3 G5
Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus S3 G5
Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii S3B G5
Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus SHB G5
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia S2B G5
Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota S1B G5
White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis S3 G5
Brown-headed Nuthatch Sitta pusilla S2 G5
Brown Creeper Certhia americana S1B,S4N G5
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis S1B G5
Veery Catharus fuscescens S2B G5
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus SRF G5
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus SHB,SZN G5
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons S3B G5
Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus S2B G5
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus S1B G5
Northern Parula Parula americana S1B G5
Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica S1B G5
Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica S2B G5
Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea S1B G4
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia S3B G5
American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla S1B G5
Worm-eating Warbler Helmithoros vermivorus S3B G5
Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii SHB G4
Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla S3B G5
Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus S3B G5
Hooded Warbler Icteria virens S1B G5
Summer Tanager Piranga rubra S3B G5
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina S3N,S5B G5
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus S3B G5
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum S3B G5
Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii SHB,S1N G4
Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammodramus caudacutus S1N,S3B G4
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana S3B,S4N G5
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus SU G5
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna S3 G5

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Mammals

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME STATE RANK GLOBAL RANK
Maryland shrew Sorex fontinalis SU G4Q
Least shrew Cryptotis parva S? G5
Eastern small-footed myotis Myotis leibii SU G3
Northern myotis Myotis septentrionalis SU G4
Silver-haired bat Lasionycteris noctivagans SU G5
Eastern red bat Lasiurus borealis SU G5
Hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus SU G5
Evening bat Nycticeius humeralis SU G5
Delmarva fox squirrel Sciurus niger cinereus S1 G5T3
Red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus S3 G5
Beaver Castor canadensis S3 G5
Marsh rice rat Oryzomys palustris S3 G5
Black right whale Balaena glacialis SXB,SZN G1
Coyote Canis latrans SU G5
Black bear Ursus americanus SX G5
Mink Mustela vison S3 G5
Bobcat Felis rufus S? G5

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Appendix I

Delaware Natural Heritage Program
Ranking System

Delaware Natural Heritage Program utilizes the heritage ranking scheme developed by The Nature Conservancy. This ranking system is used by all Natural Heritage Programs, The Nature Conservancy, Conservation Data Centers and their network cooperators worldwide. Heritage ranks are assigned to all currently trackable taxonomic groups found within the state of Delaware. Each species is given a state rank to reflect the degree of rarity within the state, and a global rank to indicate degree of rarity worldwide. In general, animal ranks are determined by the number of known occurrences (or populations) of a particular species as determined by reproductive evidence through field investigations by knowledgeable individuals. These ranks are then used to prioritized conservation efforts to provide long-term protection for our most threatened animals.

The following are definitions of both the state and global ranking system. Some ranks do not appear within this document but are regularly used by the Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

GLOBAL RANK

G1- Imperiled globally because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences worldwide) or because of factors which immediately threaten the existence of the species.

G2- Imperiled globally because of extreme rarity (6 to 20 occurrences) or because of factors which make the species particularly vulnerable to extinction throughout its range.

G3- A species which is either very rare and local throughout its range (21 to 100 occurrences) or found only locally in a restricted range, or because of some other factor making it vulnerable to extinction throughout its range.

G4- Apparently secure globally but uncommon in parts of its range.

G5- Secure on a global basis, but the species may be uncommon on a local basis.

GH- Historically known with the expectation that it may be rediscovered.

GX- Species apparently extinct throughout its historic range.

GU- Species apparently in peril, but status is undetermined.

G?- Species has not yet been ranked.

Q- If a taxon is treated as a full species, a "Q" can be added to the global rank to denote its questionable taxonomic assignment.

T- Species with a "T" denote that the infraspecific taxon is being ranked differently than the full species.

STATE RANK

S1- Extremely rare within the state (typically 5 or fewer occurrences) or because some factor immediately threatens the future existence of this species within the state.

S2- Very rare within the state (typically 6 to 20 known occurrences). Species is susceptible to becoming extirpated.

S3- Rare to uncommon; typically 21 to 100 known occurrences. S3 species are not immediately threatened with extirpation, but may be if additional populations are destroyed.

S4- Species apparently secure within the state under present conditions.

S5- Species very common throughout the state; demonstrably secure under present conditions.

SU- Species status uncertain within the state. Usually an uncommon species which is believed to be of conservation concern but there is inadequate data to determine degree of rarity.

SH- Species historically known from the state but populations or reproductive evidence not verified for an extended period of time (usually 15+ years). There are expectations that this species may be rediscovered.

SX- Species presumed to be entirely extirpated from the state. All historical locations and/or potential habitat has been inventoried unsuccessfully. There are no expectations that this species will be rediscovered within the state.

SE- Exotic (introduced through human influence) within the state; not a part of the native fauna.

SR- Reported from the state, but no evidence exists for accepting or rejecting the report.

SRF- Reported falsely from the state but this report persists in the literature.

SA- A species which occasionally accidentally enters the state.

SC- A species which casually enters the state on a periodic basis but there is no evidence of reproduction or of potential reproductive habitat existing within the state.

S?- Species has not yet been ranked

For long distance migrant animals a particular species' breeding status may be very different than its nonbreeding status, i.e. a species which winters commonly in Delaware may be a rare breeder within the state. B and N qualifiers are used to denote breeding and nonbreeding status respectively. For example, the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) is a common winter resident but a very rare breeder and is, therefore, ranked S1B,S4N. A Z qualifier is used to denote species which regularly migrate or winter in Delaware, but do not maintain definable occurrences during such periods. For lepidoptera species, however, a SZB rank can be given for those individuals which regularly migrate through the state, breed, but no individuals survive to maturity.

Appendix II

FEDERALLY LISTED ANIMAL SPECIES OCCURRING IN THE STATE OF DELAWARE

Common and Scientific Name Federal Concern
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Threatened
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Threatened
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) Endangered/Threatened
Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) Endangered/Threatened
Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) Endangered
Delmarva Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus) Endangered
Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon) Endangered
Finback Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Endangered
Rorqual Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) Endangered
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Endangered
Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaengliae) Endangered
Right Whale (Balaena glacialis) Endangered
Bog Turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii) Threatened
Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) Threatened
Atlantic Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Endangered/Threatened
Atlantic Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) Endangered
Atlantic Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) Endangered
Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) Endangered
Dwarf Wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) Endangered

Definitions for species on the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Species (United States Fish and Wildlife Service).

Endangered: Species in danger of extinction throughout its range.

Threatened: Species likely to become endangered in the forseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

A NOTE ON NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRDS

In recent years much attention has been given to the conservation of Neotropical migrant birds (those species which winter in tropical regions but nest in the United States). Many of these species are apparently experiencing regional declines. Although some are grassland-dependent birds, the majority are those species which are sensitive to forest fragmentation (forest-interior dependent species). No less than 21 of Delaware's forest-dependent species are considered rare or extirpated. Reasons for their decline are complex, and include such issues as increased nest parasitism, increased rates of predation, loss of quality nesting habitat and loss of suitable wintering habitat. Large areas of unfragmented forest are often required for their successful reproduction. While many of these species may be declining in numbers, they are still considered common occurrences by the Delaware Natural Heritage Program (DNHP). However, DNHP is currently attempting to incorporate areas of high Neotropical migratory bird use into its conservation efforts by noting what areas have the highest diversity of forest-specialized species. Additionally, DNHP is actively involved in the Delaware Partners In Flight working group, which is a state-wide effort to provide protection to our rarest Neotropical migrants.

The following birds are forest-interior Neotropical migratory species, and are some of the birds which are of primary conservation concern in our region.

Acadian Flycatcher Cerulean Warbler Yellow-throated Vireo
Veery Ovenbird American Redstart
Wood Thrush Hooded Warbler Louisian Waterthrush
Scarlet Tanager Worm-eating Warbler Summer Tanager
Black-and-white Warbler Kentucky Warbler

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